From the definition, changes, sources to how to monitor "greenhouse gases" in detail
With the rapid development of industry, high population growth, expansion of human activity areas, massive extraction and use of fossil energy, reduction of vegetation, and excessive use of chemical fertilizers, etc., the deterioration of the ecological environment has intensified, and it has become imperative to address the continuous and significant increase in the content of greenhouse gases.
What are greenhouse gases?
Greenhouse gases are gases in the atmosphere that can absorb long-wave radiation reflected from the ground and re-emit radiation, and have the ability to absorb the infrared spectrum and preserve infrared heat energy because their molecular structure contains polar covalent bonds and the vibration of internal polarity changes produces infrared absorption. There are about 30 kinds of greenhouse gases with this characteristic. A moderate amount of greenhouse gases is beneficial to the earth's ecology and human beings, but an excessive amount of greenhouse gases will have a negative impact on the earth's ecology. The six greenhouse gases to be controlled under the Kyoto Protocol are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
Changes in greenhouse gas content
CO2, CH4, N2O are gases that have always existed in nature, SF6, PFCs, HFCs refrigerants, etc. are almost all synthetic substances.
GWP and contribution of each greenhouse gas
It is worth mentioning that although they are all greenhouse gases, the warming effect of each gas is different and depends mainly on three factors: first, the ability of such gas to absorb infrared radiation, second, its content in the atmosphere, and third, the retention time of such gas in the atmosphere. In order to unify the results of measuring the overall greenhouse effect, and considering CO2 as the main gas of the greenhouse effect from human activities, CO2 equivalent is specified as the basic unit for measuring the greenhouse effect. Currently, the GWP value is used to measure the effect of greenhouse gases themselves on the greenhouse effect; GWP is a relative value that characterizes the amount of heat in the air that can be captured by a particular greenhouse gas, i.e., the ratio of the heat captured by a greenhouse gas to the heat captured by the same mass of CO2 in a certain period of time, so that the effect of different greenhouse gases can be standardized.
Sources of greenhouse gases
What activities contribute to the continued increase in greenhouse gases? The sources of different gases vary considerably, and the main sources are listed in the table below
Monitoring of greenhouse gases
The increase in greenhouse gas levels has led to global warming, which has already had an impact on natural ecosystems in many regions, such as climate anomalies, sea level rise, melting of glacial permafrost, changes in the distribution range of plants and animals, etc. The frequency of extreme weather events has also increased with global warming. Coping with the global catastrophe caused by the greenhouse effect has been recognized and paid attention by more and more countries.
In 2020, the General Secretary put forward the "double carbon" target, and in order to implement the major declaration of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality, various actions have been taken from the Ministry of Ecology and Environment to research institutes, and from enterprises to individuals to help achieve the carbon peaking target and carbon neutrality vision.
In order to effectively control greenhouse gas emissions and establish a carbon accounting system, it is necessary to accurately monitor the real-time content of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, accurately monitor the greenhouse gas emissions from pollution sources and mobile sources, accurately monitor the CH4 gas content from coal mining, natural gas transmission process and biogas energy leakage, accurately monitor the content of certain greenhouse gases in soil, sewage and seawater, and monitor greenhouse gas emissions from industrial production and agricultural farming activities. gas emissions from industrial production and agricultural farming activities. At the same time, some monitoring data can also be used to provide feedback to adjust production and processes to improve energy efficiency and avoid waste.
For different fields of greenhouse gas monitoring needs, Wuhan Shengnuo Instruments eLAS laser greenhouse gas analyzer is a high-performance laser gas analyzer developed according to the needs of domestic and foreign industrial online analysis and environmental protection online monitoring. The analyzer adopts tunable semiconductor laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) detection technology, with ultra-low range monitoring lower limit, the lowest detection limit can be achieved ppb level. TDLAS technology has higher spectral resolution than the gas measurement principle, thus has excellent anti-background gas cross-interference performance, improve the accuracy and reliability of process gas analysis. The analyzer can analyze greenhouse gases such as O2, CO, CO2, etc. according to the working conditions.
The eLAS laser greenhouse gas analyzer has strong resistance to gas cross-talk and high measurement accuracy. High sensitivity and other features. It can achieve percentage and ppb level detection. Also equipped with spectral multi-line scanning, which can eliminate dust, tar and background gas interference. The product is designed to be flexible and can be tray-mounted or wall-mounted structure. Half-year calibration cycle, low cost of use and OEM/ODM services are available. The following are the product parameters of the eLAS laser greenhouse gas analyzer from Shengnuo Instruments.
The eLAS laser greenhouse gas analyzer collects, monitors and calculates data on greenhouse gases (mainly methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, etc.) routinely or temporarily, and obtains information on the status of carbon sources and sinks and their change trends through comprehensive observation, numerical simulation, statistical analysis and other means, such as greenhouse gas emission intensity, concentration in the environment, ecosystem carbon sink and impact on the ecosystem. Thus, we can build a basic urban carbon monitoring network, improve the accuracy of local greenhouse gas statistics and accounting, orderly implement basic urban carbon source and sink monitoring, study and explore the working model and data application of carbon monitoring and assessment, and play an important supporting role of carbon monitoring and assessment in achieving the goal of carbon peaking and the vision of carbon neutrality.
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